Thursday, March 20, 2014

Hypothesis of dreaming

Dreams and dreaming always were of great interest in people. With its mystery they are often subject to discussion. There are many hypotheses and thoughts about dreams. This article presents several of them.

At night there are many external stimuli that bombard our senses, but the mind interprets the stimulus and makes it part of the dream in order to ensure continuity of sleep. However, the brain will wake up if the individual is in danger or if trained to respond to certain sounds, for example a baby crying.

Dreams allow the suppressed parts of the mind to meet with the imagination and at the same time maintain the conscious mind away from thoughts that would suddenly cause waking in shock.
Freud thought that the bad dreams allow the mind to gain control over emotions resulting from painful experiences. Jung believed that dreams perform compensation of certain attitudes that are stored in wake awareness.
Ferenc assumed that in dream, if you encourage a person may say something that is not openly stated.
Dreams are like the cleaning operations of computers when they are excluded. Parasitic growths and other " nuggets " are removed during sleep.

Dreams create new ideas by making random mutations of thoughts. Some mind can discard as useless, while others may be regarded as valuable and can be reserved. Blehner call this theory " Darwinism associated with sleep."

Dreams regulate mood.

According to Hartmann dreams may function like psychotherapy, by " building secure connections " and allowing the dreamer to unite think that perhaps are separated while he is awake.
Recent research by psychologist Griffin, who was followed by 12 years of test data from the most sleep laboratories, led to the formulation of theories of dreaming about meeting the expectations under which dreaming metaphorically fill some emotional expectation in the autonomic nervous system and lowers stress in mammals.

Dreams are a product of " separate imagination “,. 
Furthermore that is differentiated from cognizance and pulls material from sensory memory for stimulation with sensory support resulting in hallucination. By stimulating the sensory signals to move the autonomous nerves, dreams can affect mind - body connection. Nerves are grouped into several chains in Chinese medicine are called meridians. During sleep, the body also activates chain meridians to restore helps in their own growth and sends signals to move under pressure, with higher levels of enzymes for growth.

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Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis

RA is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints. RA can cause inflammation of the tissues around the joints and other organs in the body. Autoimmune disease as a natural defence system turns against the body and attacks some of their structures and tissues, in this cases the joints.
The disease is chronic and progressive. When we say that the disease is chronic means that it takes a long period, but not necessarily the symptoms will be present the entire time. There can be long periods without symptoms. And when it comes to its progressive, meaning that the disease progresses and there is a potential danger of destruction of the joints and limit their function.
Risk factors
RA is a common disease, three times more common in women and usually occurs between 40-60 years of age. Familial predisposition is common, which leads to the thought that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of the disease.

What is arthritis?
Arthritis means joint inflammation. Inflammation causes swelling, stiffness, redness and pain in the joints. Also it can spread to tissues around joints such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles. In some patients with RA, chronic inflammation can leads to the destruction of articular cartilage, bone and ligaments causing deformities of the joints. Damage may occur early in the disease and to progress as the patient is aging.
The reason for the occurrence of the disease remains unknown.
Course of illness
The disease has periods when it is active, and that period is when tissues are inflamed. When inflammation recede say that the disease is in remission, stationary or inactive. Remissions occur spontaneously or with treatment. Their duration varies from weeks to years. In these periods the symptoms are withdrawn and patients feel relatively good. When the disease re-enter the active phase symptoms and symptoms return again. This changing of active and inactive periods is different in every patient, but typical of rheumatoid arthritis.

decreased appetite
easily increased temperature
muscle and joint pain
swelling of joints
morning stiffness of the joints
tenderness of the joints touch
occurrence of rheumatoid nodules in mostly hands
Muscle pain, joint pain and stiffness are the most common in the morning and after periods of inactivity. Arthritis is a frequent during exacerbations of the disease. Also during periods of exacerbation (worsening of disease) joints become red, swollen, painful and sensitive to touch.
In RA joints are usually affected symmetrically, ie covered joints on both sides of the body. Often involved small joints of the hands and ulnaris. During active periods even simple movements become difficult feasible. Often are affected and small joints of the foot.
Chronic inflammation can affect tissues, bones and cartilage. This leads to damage of cartilage and erosion and weakness of bones and muscles, resulting in deformation and destruction of the joints as a result of what occurs what matters most to patients and that is loss of function or mobility of joints.
Other organs that can be affected by inflammation are:
tear glands
heart and pericardium
blood lineages-red and white
subcutaneous tissue - can occur rheumatoid nodules-hard balls under the skin around the joints and fingers in places that are often exposed to pressure
blood vessels

First step is treatment. A doctor who is specially trained in the treatment of these diseases is called a rheumatologist. The doctor will examine you and will inquire about your symptoms. It is to be made certain blood tests and x-ray images. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and symptoms you have, the distribution of affected joints and organs, blood samples and X-ray images.
To distinguish whether symptoms may be caused by another disease, and in order not to be misunderstood, it is likely that it will take several visits to the doctor before a definitive diagnosis.
Treatment is most successful when it is based on cooperation between the doctor, patient and family members. Optimal treatment consists of a combination of medications, rest, exercises to strengthen the joints and patient education. Therapy adapts to each individual separately.
It is recommended drug therapy for the control of disease progression. Early initiated treatment reduces inflammation chances to destroy your joints and limit your daily activities.
First-line drugs or fast acting medications
These are drugs that affect the reduction of pain and inflammation. Examples are acetylsalicylic acid and corticosteroid drugs to reduce pain and inflammation
Second-line drugs or slow-acting drugs
It includes anti rheumatic drugs that modify disease, such as gold, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, infliximab, rituximab and others.
Drugs for relief
Acetaminophen for pain or topical agents for pain, which are massaged on the skin.
Other affected areas of the body other than the joints are treated separately depending on the body.
Many of the drugs used have side effects, which is why it is important to regularly visit your doctor and report problems that you have. This will help the doctor determine the best treatment for you.
Changes in lifestyle
to rest when you're tired
to proper nutrition, moderate and balanced
exercise regularly
to maintain a slender body line
Physical exercise and rest
During the worsening of the disease is best to rest inflamed joints. When inflammation will reduce the necessary physical exercises that will help maintain joint flexibility and strengthen the muscles around the joints. From sports especially swimming is recommended because during swimming joints have minimal burden.
Surgical treatment
To restore the function of the wrist or ankle oshtetenitot fix may require surgical intervention. Intervention joints are required orthopedic surgeons. The range of intervention varies from arthroscopy to partial or complete joint replacement with an artificial prosthesis.
Professional counselling
If symptoms affect your mood and psyche, do not hesitate to seek support from loved ones or professional advice.
This disease can be completely cured, but treatment can help control the disease and reduce symptoms. Treatment includes medication, exercise and changes in lifestyle and continues throughout life.

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Thursday, February 27, 2014

Stem cells from milk teeth could save a life - truth or myth?

Stem cells in the multiple cell organisms have remarkable potential to develop into specialised cells with characteristics of a variety of other cells and tissues. They serve as a kind of healing system of the body. Differ from other cells by two features:

- First, they are unspecialised cells able to renew themselves through cell division;
- Second, under certain physiological and experimental conditions, can be induced to become tissue / organ specific cells with special functions.

Among mammals, there are two types of stem cells: embryonic and somatic. 

Stem cells - a centre of interest in modern medicine

In the last decade, stem cells are the centre of interest in regenerative medicine and more and more there collection at its very birth is a routine and a great investment of each parent for their child. Sources for collection of stem cells are the umbilical cord blood (at birth) and bone marrow.

In recent times more common are tests of pulp of milk teeth and molars with unfinished root growth, which is a rich source of pluripotent stem cells. This is especially important for those parents who haven't the opportunity to collect and bank the stem cells from umbilical cord blood at the birth of their child and is considered a second chance to be able to collect valuable biological resource of stem cells.

Stem cells from milk teeth have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types

Scientists have identified mesenchymal type of stem cells in dental pulp. This type of stem cell has the future potential to differentiate into multiple cell types:

cardiac myocytes - to rebuild the damaged heart tissue after a heart attack;
Neural - regenerating nerves and brain tissue, as in stroke; 
myocytes - the regeneration of muscles;
osteocytes - to rebuild the bone;
chondrocytes - the cartilage and ligaments;
adipocytes - the fat;
the bones and tissues of the oral cavity.

Further research will show if these type of cells can be used in the treatment of the aforementioned conditions as well as certain diseases:

Parkinson's disease;
Alzheimer's disease;
Treatment of teeth and tooth related diseases and others.

Milk teeth - simple for collection

More medical research companies devoted to examining this kind of source that could become dominant because of noninvasive collection of cells. On the other hand, for parents it sounds like a great health insurance - banking of stem cells collected from the milk teeth of children 6-13 years of age at the time of their natural replacement, with the possibility of their use if the child develop a disease in the future. Today, in the world there are many such banks for collection, processing and preserving stem cells and keeping them for possible future use in the treatment of various conditions and diseases.

Researches on stem cells are in early stage

But unfortunately research is still at an early stage, so the therapies that would include these stem cells from teeth have not yet been developed and will probably spend many more years to come to the final results. Experts in this field are still skeptical of banking the cells from teeth because they are cells of mesenchymal origin and may not be able to use the larger life-threatening procedures, as already known diseases today are treated with stem cells originating from umbilical cord blood for example. But, still, science, new technologies and investing in health, to indicate whether molars and milk teeth can contribute to the process of regeneration of tissues and organs as well as treatment of various diseases. Hopefully they will succeed!

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Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Foods and supplements to maintain emotional and mental health - Part Two

Stress and sleep

Eight or more hours of sleep per night is essential for health and wellbeing. The body repaired on time and creates a lot of important chemicals that are part of the immune system.

You can lose weight and be healthier if you sleep at least 8 hours per night than often sit late at night and exercise. In fact researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine recently found that regular weight loss during sleep is associated with increased levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite and decreased levels of leptin, a hormone that informs your body satiety.

Sleeping 8 hours or more helps you to better learn during working hours. Far from being lazy, some parts of the brain is actually more active during sleep than when you are not sleeping. The brain during sleeps processes and organise information that accumulated during the day, storing them in longterm information so that cannot be lost. If you sleep enough, you'll find it's easier to learn repetitive skills.

Supplements that can improve sleep and relaxation

Sleep depends on the relaxation of the muscles, so be sure that you take the necessary nutrients needed for relaxation of your muscles such as B -complex, vitamin C, magnesium, essential fatty acids, valerian, hops and chamomile.

Studies show that U.S. and Korean Ginseng helps reduce stress hormones, immediately after stressful situations and during prolonged stress. Ginseng, unlike other herbs, is more effective when taken over a period of several months to a year, than in shorter periods.

Insomnia and supplements that fight against it

The lack of certain minerals, vitamins, enzymes and amino acids can hinder sleep, and lack of calcium, magnesium, folic acid and B vitamins.

1. Calcium, particularly within the food has a calming effect on the body. Lack of calcium in the body leads to restlessness and weakness. For adults, doses of 600 mg of liquid calcium have been shown to have a relaxing effect. Doses ranging from 1500-2000 mg per day, in divided doses, after meals and before bedtime.

2. Magnesium, in doses of 250 mg may help in falling asleep. Magnesium deficiency is responsible for nervousness that prevents sleep. Foods rich in magnesium is kelp, almonds, cashew nut and yeast. Doses are around 1000 mg. daily. 

Lack of calcium and magnesium can cause leg cramps during the night. Calcium and magnesium have a calming effect on the brain. 
They are essential for normal sleep. 
Magnesium and Calcium taken before bedtime at least 45 minutes before bedtime have a calming effect. Use in a 2:1 ratio, such as 500 mg. calcium and 250 mg. magnesium.

3. B vitamins are known to have a calming effect on the nerves. Vitamin B6 supplementation of 50 to 100 mg. per day can help in the prevention of insomnia. Beer yeast is an excellent source of vitamin B6. Vitamin B12 is a necessary supplement for the treatment of insomnia. 25 mg of vitamin B12, with the addition of 100 mg. of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) greatly helps with insomnia. The best sources of B vitamins are liver, corn, germ, tuna, nuts, peanuts, bananas and sunflower. Inositol enhances REM sleep. Take 100 mg a day before bedtime.

4. Chromium is often used in people who have high blood sugar (diabetes), and keeps you awake at night. Beer yeast is a good source of chromium. If you prefer supplements, the daily dose is 250 to 500 micrograms.

The soothing herbs such as hops (Humulus lupulus), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), are used to relax the nervous system, which helps to naturally upgrading sleep.

5. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis). Valerian has a relaxing and sleeping effect, reduces spasms, improves digestion and lowers blood pressure. Useful for frequent insomnia and insomnia associated with pain, cramps, menstrual pain, tension, anxiety. Valerian allows restful sleep without morning drowsiness or other side effects or risk of addiction. Studies have shown that Valerian has a huge benefit for people who has little or irregular sleep (especially women), and for people who have difficulty falling asleep. Valerian shows effect comparable to that of benzodiazepines, and the ability to increase the deep sleep stages 3 and 4. Valerian, however, does not cause daytime sleepiness, and also has no effect on physical performance, in terms of reducing them. Valerian like every means for helping asleep acts as a depressant on the central nervous system and should be used every night. It is best to be taken 45 minutes before bedtime.

6. Hops (Humulus lupulus). Hops is relaxing, soothing herb that causes sleep, and has antiseptic properties. Good for general insomnia particularly associated with stress and anxiety or restlessness, problems with digestion and headaches. Hops should not be taken if you have depression, as well as the first three months of pregnancy.

7. Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Camomile is soothing herb tha improves digestion, removes spasms and pain, and also acts as an antiseptic and helps in wound healing. Also is good for anxiety and inflammation.

read more "Foods and supplements to maintain emotional and mental health - Part Two"

Foods and supplements to maintain emotional and mental health - Part One

Your nervous system is the first thing that is attacked during conditions of stress, tension and emotion. Thus, there is great significance to reduce this destructive influence in life, to the highest possible level. Individuals seeking solutions rather than complaining about the problems generally are healthier than others. Sometimes the solution is not to change the situation, but a change in attitude and behaviour. Rehearsing the ability to deal with difficulties and to stay motivated is the key to stay happy.

Six supplements that help your nervous system

Pay attention to fruits, vegetables and grains that are rich in magnesium, and fish from cold waters - such as salmon, which are rich in omega - 3 essential fatty acids, and magnesium. Dairy products provide support to the nervous system, as a rich source of calcium, but pay more attention to the low-calorie products. However, six supplements that really are more than necessary for your nervous system are:

1. Essential fatty acids - of which benefit all cells in the body, including nerve, which assist in the implementation of neural impulses. Omega-3 essential fatty acid, and DHA and EPA are very important although their sources of food are very limited.

2. Calcium - important for nerve impulses, especially together with magnesium.

3. Magnesium - the number one supplement to calm nerves! As calcium is for bones, magnesium is for the nerves. I is important for nerve impulses and its lack leads to irritability and nervousness.

4. B - Complex - B vitamins are often called stress vitamin because it is vital for the nervous system. Sources rich in these vitamins are brown rice, cereals, leaf vegetables and beer yeast.

5. Lecithin - rich in choline, which is necessary for proper transmission of nerve impulses from the brain to the central nervous system, and also protects and repairs, damaged nerves. Daily doses ranging from 1200 to 2400 mg in the form of soft gel capsule.

6. Chamomile - is recommended for everyone who needs stress relief, in the form of tea, essential oil or supplement. 

Prevent adverse impacts

Everything what stress is for your nerves is a negative impact, but much of it simply cannot be avoided. However, the following three stressors perform extensive damage and its prevention is under your control.

Tobacco - people say they smoke to "calm the nerves", but just the opposite happens. Smoking is a sure way to damage the nerves because it constricts the tiny capillaries that feed them.
Obesity - overweight increases nerve disorders and anxiety. Give yourself a job to really lose the weight (half to one kilogram a week), bearing in mind that a reliable and persistent win.
Carbonated beverages - Magnesium is a key mineral for the health of nerves, and carbonated drinks like soda, contain phosphorus, which binds to magnesium and makes him not available to you body.

Memory and support for your brain

Experts specified that is under our control keeping at least 2 /3 of the health of our brains. It is known that what you eat goes into your brain so it makes sense that we should make dietary choices that will make your brainwork flawless. Medical experts have identified several key supplements that help your body to keep the brain young and healthy as possible. And finally, do not avoid exercise because it plays an important role in preserving memory. Daily 30 minute walking helps the brain to operate at full capacity, and even promote growth of new nerve cells and improves memory and learning.

Real food for your brain

Coloured food - the brain needs plenty of antioxidants to fight off free radicals that can destroy neurones. Eat dark green vegetables like spinach and broccoli, red foods like tomatoes and peppers, dark yellow as a pumpkin, and fruits such as blueberries and raspberries. The pigment of food determines the antioxidant power, so select them strongly coloured fruits and vegetables.

Fish - about 60 % of the brain is actually fatty matter that is why consumption of healthy fats is vital for mental health. Fats should come from sources such as salmon and other cold-water fish that provide healthy amounts of omega - 3 fatty acids, which keep the brain in top shape.

Protein - amino acids from proteins provide 80 % of the material from which are constructed brain neurotransmitters. Consuming adequate amounts of protein from fish, poultry, soy and whey will make you have clear head and be less moody.

Four supplements for great thinking

1. Omega - 3 essential fatty acids - inside the brain and outer membranes of neurones are constructed of Omega - 3 fatty acids. Feeding your brain with omega - 3 fatty acids from the food we eat or supplements helps to maintain their structure and integrity.

2. Vitamin B - Complex - the researchers found that maintaining the level of homocysteine in healthy proportions not only helps the cardiovascular system, but also greatly affects brain health. There is no better combination of B6, B12 and folic acid to achieve it.

3. Vitamin E - given that most of the brain is made of a slick material, the water-soluble antioxidant done wonders in terms of protecting the brain.

4. Ginkgo biloba - highly effective in promoting brain circulation, which in turn improves memory. 

Emotional health

Health problems that involve emotions are constantly increasing worldwide. Experts seek probable reasons to explain this increase, although still very few understand why as a society we face the emotional problems more than ever. Among nutritionists one thing is certain: our diet greatly lacks key nutrients who provide us with the raw materials needed to create the primary brain chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin, two hormones necessary for emotional health. For many individuals, the addition of dietary essential fatty acids and amino acids, mean difference of just being and living with passion, joy and happiness. And do not forget, our brain needs especially very clean and fresh water!

Basic supplements to improve your emotional health

Omega - 3 essential fatty acids - flax oil is a good source of this essential fatty acid and fish oil that provides sufficient amounts of DHA and EPA are two of the essential Omega - 3 essential fatty acids for brain health, although your liver should convert the flax oil in these fatty acids.
Calcium and Magnesium - Calcium is absolutely essential for a healthy nervous system and does wonders to reduce emotional care, while magnesium combat stress.
Vitamin B and C - are necessary for normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. Not surprisingly, many people that feel stressed are deficient in B -complex and vitamin C. 
read more "Foods and supplements to maintain emotional and mental health - Part One"

Friday, February 21, 2014

Learning a new language helps against Alzheimer's

This surprising claim is the result of recent research conducted at the University "York" from Toronto. The group led by psychologist Ellen Bialystok tested 450 patients with Alzheimer's disease. People who were examined were divided into two categories - the first category consists of people who speak only one language, the second by people who speak two or more languages.

Examination prompted a fascinating finding.

In fact, even if all patients had similar cognitive level, in terms of patients who were bilingual disease developed on average four years later than the monolingual patients. The difference in the appearance of the first symptoms was again about 5 years.

It is believed that this phenomenon occurs due to the fact that the people who are multilingual brain is more stimulated. Also presumably among them is activated and a portion of the brain network that serves as the system that controls the execution of orders. In people who speak two or more languages this section is constantly used in order to prevent interference between the known languages.

Finally, Dr. Bialystok says that although the fact that a person speaks more than one language does not prevent the disease occur, it will help the person to become much more resilient to the effects of it.

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Caffeine and its impact on physical activity

Caffeine is an organic compound of plant origin, has a white colour and bitter taste. Naturally found in coffee, cocoa, tealeaves of some other plants. Caffeine has no nutritional value for humans, but its use is widely prevalent due to its pharmacological action.

Physiological effects of caffeine

There are individual differences in how caffeine affects. In some people, an amount of 250 mg of caffeine may affect alertness and activity, and in the other can cause exaggerated nervous reactions. Such reactions are usually common in people who rarely consume caffeine drinks because regular use of caffeine makes organism tolerant of this substance, and such reactions are rare. 30-60 minutes from taking the drink containing caffeine achieves the maximum level of this substance in the blood.

Caffeine has stimulating effect on some functions of the central nervous system, directly or indirectly. A stimulus effect of caffeine on the heart is expressed through increased heart rate and increased force of contraction, thereby increasing the volume of the heart. It stimulates the release of adrenaline, thus contributing to the release of some higher fatty acids in the blood, which can be used as an energy source by muscles. Under the influence of caffeine also increases the secretion of stomach acid, which can affect uncomfortable with people who have stomach problems. Especially important feature of caffeine is that it strengthens the discharge fluid from the body.

Effects of caffeine on athletes

Studies have shown that caffeine has no significant effect on the achievements of athletes in sports where the action takes less than 1 hour. On the other hand, when the sports activity lasting more than a few hours and require greater endurance (marathon, cycling, etc.) caffeine can have positive effects. It is considered that in these circumstances with the release of higher fatty acids it provide additional energy required for activity.

One dose of coffee before exercise can be helpful, while higher doses may have harmful effects.

Due to his action on the heart and central nervous system, this substance is not recommended for people with neurotic problems, upset stomach, high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases. In children greater amount of caffeine can be manifested by hyperactivity, nervousness, headache, cold sweat and others.

Caffeine is on the list of prohibited funds from the International Olympic Committee. The presence of more than 12 milligrams of caffeine in urine is considered as doping and is sufficient for disqualification of athletes. To achieve this concentration of caffeine in the urine, it is necessary to intake a very large amount of this substance.

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